Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2.fa

AminoSee DNA Render Summary

Hilbert curvers of dimension 5 used, yielding images with ~1,227.8 codons per pixel including non-coding regions. Linear reference file shows exactly 9 codons per pixel


1D Linear Map Image

2D Hilbert Map Image

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by Tom Atkinson            aminosee.funk.nz
ah-mee no-see       "I See It Now != I AminoSee it!"


Amino Acid Hue° RGB Count Description Hilbert PNG
0. Reference

255,128,128

80,464,831 Composite of all amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Reference
1. Histidine

329°

255,128,193

2,681,924 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Histidine
2. Glutamic acid

16°

255,162,128

2,943,808 Group III: Acidic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glutamic acid
3. Aspartic acid

31°

255,193,128

1,835,971 Group III: Acidic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Aspartic acid
4. Lysine

313°

255,128,227

4,765,805 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Lysine
5. Cysteine

63°

249,255,128

2,790,969 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Cysteine
6. Glycine

78°

217,255,128

4,052,343 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glycine
7. Alanine

94°

183,255,128

3,341,043 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Alanine
8. Valine

125°

128,255,138

4,060,593 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Valine
9. Leucine

141°

128,255,172

8,861,477 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Leucine
10. Isoleucine

157°

128,255,206

4,850,402 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Isoleucine
11. Phenylalanine

172°

128,255,238

4,796,047 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Phenylalanine
12. Tryptophan

188°

128,238,255

1,455,359 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Tryptophan
13. Serine

203°

128,206,255

7,185,469 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Serine
14. Threonine

219°

128,172,255

4,037,320 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Threonine
15. Glutamine

250°

149,128,255

3,131,844 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glutamine
16. Asparagine

266°

183,128,255

3,238,396 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Asparagine
17. Tyrosine

282°

217,128,255

2,625,565 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Tyrosine
18. Arginine

297°

249,128,255

3,920,399 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Arginine
19. Proline

344°

255,128,162

4,038,493 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Proline
20. Methionine

110°

149,255,128

1,494,780 START Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Methionine
21. Ochre

255,128,128

1,714,450 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Ochre
22. Amber

47°

255,227,128

1,053,015 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Amber
23. Opal

240°

128,128,255

1,589,359 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Opal
19 Amino Acids, 4 Start/Stop codes, 1 NNN . . . .

Render Summary

				[object Object]
				

AminoSeeNoEvil

DNA/RNA Chromosome Viewer

A new way to view DNA that attributes a colour hue to each Amino acid codon



Hilbert Projection

This is a curve that touches each pixel exactly once, without crossing over or breaking.

Linear Projection

The following image is in raster order, top left to bottom right:

About Start and Stop Codons

The codon AUG is called the START codon as it the first codon in the transcribed mRNA that undergoes translation. AUG is the most common START codon and it codes for the amino acid methionine (Met) in eukaryotes and formyl methionine (fMet) in prokaryotes. During protein synthesis, the tRNA recognizes the START codon AUG with the help of some initiation factors and starts translation of mRNA. Some alternative START codons are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Alternate codons usually code for amino acids other than methionine, but when they act as START codons they code for Met due to the use of a separate initiator tRNA. Non-AUG START codons are rarely found in eukaryotic genomes. Apart from the usual Met codon, mammalian cells can also START translation with the amino acid leucine with the help of a leucyl-tRNA decoding the CUG codon. Mitochondrial genomes use AUA and AUU in humans and GUG and UUG in prokaryotes as alternate START codons. In prokaryotes, E. coli is found to use AUG 83%, GUG 14%, and UUG 3% as START codons. The lacA and lacI coding this.regions in the E coli lac operon don’t have AUG START codon and instead use UUG and GUG as initiation codons respectively.