Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2

AminoSee DNA Render Summary for /home/tom/Sites/AminoSee/dna/Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2.fa Science render mode

M7C17H76.7

Amino Acid Hue° RGB Count Description Hilbert PNG
0. Reference

255,128,128

80,464,831 Composite of all amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Reference
1. Ochre

255,128,128

1,714,450 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Ochre
2. Glutamic acid

16°

255,162,128

2,943,808 Group III: Acidic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glutamic acid
3. Aspartic acid

31°

255,193,128

1,835,971 Group III: Acidic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Aspartic acid
4. Amber

47°

255,227,128

1,053,015 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Amber
5. Cysteine

63°

249,255,128

2,790,969 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Cysteine
6. Glycine

78°

217,255,128

4,052,343 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glycine
7. Alanine

94°

183,255,128

3,341,043 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Alanine
8. Methionine

110°

149,255,128

1,494,780 START Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Methionine
9. Valine

125°

128,255,138

4,060,593 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Valine
10. Leucine

141°

128,255,172

8,861,477 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Leucine
11. Isoleucine

157°

128,255,206

4,850,402 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Isoleucine
12. Phenylalanine

172°

128,255,238

4,796,047 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Phenylalanine
13. Tryptophan

188°

128,238,255

1,455,359 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Tryptophan
14. Serine

203°

128,206,255

7,185,469 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Serine
15. Threonine

219°

128,172,255

4,037,320 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Threonine
16. Opal

240°

128,128,255

1,589,359 STOP Codon Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Opal
17. Glutamine

250°

149,128,255

3,131,844 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Glutamine
18. Asparagine

266°

183,128,255

3,238,396 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Asparagine
19. Tyrosine

282°

217,128,255

2,625,565 Group II: Polar, uncharged amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Tyrosine
20. Arginine

297°

249,128,255

3,920,399 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Arginine
21. Lysine

313°

255,128,227

4,765,805 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Lysine
22. Histidine

329°

255,128,193

2,681,924 Group IV: Basic amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Histidine
23. Proline

344°

255,128,162

4,038,493 Group I: Nonpolar amino acids Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2 Proline
19 Amino Acids, 4 Start/Stop codes, 1 NNN . . . .

1D Linear Map Image

2D Hilbert Map Image

Render Summary

          
Canonical Name: Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2
Canonical PNG: Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2.fa_linear_c17_fix_sci.png
Source: Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2.fa
Full path: /home/tom/Sites/AminoSee/dna/Human-GRCh38.p12_chr2.fa
Started: 3:32:59 am Finished: 3:51:14 am Used: 17 minutes, 49.052 seconds  
Machine load averages: 8.17 / 8.17 / 8.72
Bandwidth: 223.63KB / sec DNA Filesize: 237.01MB
Image Output bytes: 18.06MB
Pixels (linear): 4,733,225 Image aspect Ratio: fix
Pixels (hilbert): 1,048,576 (auto) Dimension 7 Hilbert curve
Linear to Hilbert reduction: 4.51 Oversampling: 4
Custom flags: --C_autoK------M7 C17-I5000000 "Science mode" render style
Estimated Codons: 82,839,299 (filesize % 3)
Actual Codons matched: 80,464,831  
Estimate accuracy: 103% of actual 
Non-coding characters: 125,930
Coding characters: 245,021,174
Codons per pixel: 17 (linear) 76.74 (hilbert projection)
Max pix setting: 5,000,000
Darken Factor 0.25 / Highlight Factor 4 Black Point: 128
288 Gigabytes processed on cheese:
Render serial: 1,267 Render UID: 1568820779462
AminoSee version: 1.28.1
          

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Linear Projection

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About Start and Stop Codons

The codon AUG is called the START codon as it the first codon in the transcribed mRNA that undergoes translation. AUG is the most common START codon and it codes for the amino acid methionine (Met) in eukaryotes and formyl methionine (fMet) in prokaryotes. During protein synthesis, the tRNA recognizes the START codon AUG with the help of some initiation factors and starts translation of mRNA. Some alternative START codons are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Alternate codons usually code for amino acids other than methionine, but when they act as START codons they code for Met due to the use of a separate initiator tRNA. Non-AUG START codons are rarely found in eukaryotic genomes. Apart from the usual Met codon, mammalian cells can also START translation with the amino acid leucine with the help of a leucyl-tRNA decoding the CUG codon. Mitochondrial genomes use AUA and AUU in humans and GUG and UUG in prokaryotes as alternate START codons. In prokaryotes, E. coli is found to use AUG 83%, GUG 14%, and UUG 3% as START codons. The lacA and lacI coding this.regions in the E coli lac operon don’t have AUG START codon and instead use UUG and GUG as initiation codons respectively.